People and Work in Canada Industrial and Organizational Psychology 1st Edition Test Bank
Chapter 1: Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology
In this chapter, we introduce students to the area of industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology, focusing on the scientist-practitioner perspective, the history of I/O psychology, and the general concepts important for organizations.
After reading this chapter you should be able to
- Define the field of I/O psychology
- Describe the scientist-practitioner perspective and how it influences I/O psychology
- Recognize the major influences on the development of I/O psychology
- Identify current challenges facing the field
Industrial/organizational psychology is a field of scientific research and professional practice that aims to further the welfare of people by understanding the behaviour of individuals and organizations in the workplace. Industrial/organizational psychology adopts a scientist-practitioner perspective and focuses on the enhancement of individual well-being and organizational effectiveness in the workplace. Training in I/O psychology is enforced by guidelines published by the Canadian Society for Industrial Organizational Psychology (CSIOP). These guidelines specify the core areas in which I/O psychologists should be trained.
We then review the history of I/O psychology. As a relatively young field of enquiry, the major developments in I/O psychology have all occurred since the early 1900s. In Canada, I/O psychology was even slower to develop and really has emerged only since World War II. We will begin by considering the development of I/O psychology in the United States, and then consider how Canadian I/O psychology fits into this larger history.
As a field, I/O psychology has been based on responding to the changing needs of organizations and individuals. Current trends such as technological development and diversity are just the most recent examples of external forces that influence the science and practice of I/O psychology.
Discussion Topics and Learning Activities
- The Great Hawthorne Debate: In groups of 4, assign students a position arguing either for or against the Hawthorne effect. Have students look up articles related to the Hawthorne effect that support their position in order to help form their argument. Host a 15-minute debate pairing groups against each other. Conclude the activity by discussing the importance of debate in academic literature.
- Researcher Profile: Dr. Patricia Rowe is one of the pioneers of I/O psychology in Canada. Conduct a literature search on Dr. Rowe (using Google Scholar, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, EBSCO, etc.) and identify some of her articles. Using the citation option, identify some of her most cited works.
Chapter 1—Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology
- Which of the following is one of the ways that Industrial/Organizational psychology aims to further the welfare of people?
|a.||determining group effects on work performance|
|b.||assisting in the selection and training of competent leaders|
|c.||assisting organizations in the effective management of human resources|
|d.||providing psychological counselling for individuals in the workplace|
ANS: C PTS: 1 BLM: Higher Order REF: 2–3
- According to Dr. Theresa Kline (1996), which of the following might I/O psychologists be called upon to do?
|a.||assist in the selection of employees|
|b.||provide support for employee counselling|
|c.||assist in the assignment of work tasks|
|d.||provide recommendations on health benefits for employees|
ANS: A PTS: 1 BLM: Remember REF: 3
- One of the most important aspects of CSIOP’s definition of I/O psychology is the view that I/O psychology focuses on which perspective?
ANS: C PTS: 1 BLM: Remember REF: 3
- Which of the following is a core competency area in which I/O psychologists should be trained?
ANS: B PTS: 1 BLM: Remember REF: 5
- Which of the following factors was a major influence on the development of I/O Psychology?
ANS: A PTS: 1 BLM: Higher Order REF: 6
- Which German psychologist’s lab was the starting point for much of I/O Psychology?
|a.||Walter Dill Scott|
ANS: D PTS: 1 BLM: Remember REF: 6
- The Army Alpha Test was developed for placement of U.S. soldiers during World War I to measure which of the following?
ANS: B PTS: 1 BLM: Higher Order REF: 7
- Which researcher helped pioneer the use of job analysis while working with the military in the development of selection tests?
|a.||Walter Dill Scott|
ANS: B PTS: 1 BLM: Remember REF: 8
- Which one of the following led industrial psychologists to expand their scope of research interests to issues related to employee morale, group processes, and job attitudes?
|a.||World War I|
|b.||World War II|
|c.||the Hawthorne studies|
|d.||the Wundt studies|
ANS: C PTS: 1 BLM: Remember REF: 8
- What was a method of selection known as the “Assessment Centre” originally developed to select?
ANS: B PTS: 1 BLM: Remember REF: 9
- What year was the Industrial and Business Psychology Division of the American Psychological Association first formed?
ANS: A PTS: 1 BLM: Remember REF: 9
- McGill University Professor Ed Webster made a substantial contribution to I/O Psychology in Canada through his scholarly work on what topic?
|b.||the Assessment Centre|
|c.||the employment interview|
|d.||work-life balance research|
ANS: C PTS: 1 BLM: Remember REF: 11
- What does the term “presenteeism” refer to?
|a.||employees showing up to work even though they may be sick|
|b.||employees introducing their clients to other employees|
|c.||managers presenting on topics related to team performance|
|d.||managers evaluating employee performance based on attendance|
ANS: A PTS: 1 BLM: Higher Order REF: 16
- What is the notion of “boom, bust, and echo” put forth by David Foot (2001) from the University of Toronto a characterization of?
|a.||the age profile of the workforce|
|b.||the Canadian economy after World War II|
|c.||the changes in the workplace as a result of technology|
|d.||the available employment opportunities in the workforce|
ANS: A PTS: 1 BLM: Remember REF: 16
- Which of the following does the Hawthorne effect suggest?
|a.||one small change will have a cascading effect|
|b.||a prediction causes itself to become true|
|c.||any intervention may have the desired effect|
|d.||increasing light in the workplace will increase productivity|
ANS: C PTS: 1 BLM: Higher Order REF: 8
- Job and task analysis is a core competency in which I/O psychologists should receive training.
ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 5
- Hugo Munsterberg is recognized as the most influential early I/O psychologist.
ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 7
- The Army Beta test is a measure of cognitive ability developed for placement of U.S. soldiers during World War I.
ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 7
- In the Hawthorne studies, when the researchers increased the level of illumination, worker productivity went up. When researchers decreased the level of illumination, worker productivity went down.
ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: 8
- Industrial/Organizational Psychology was first developed in Canada.
ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: 10
- The initial two divisions of the Canadian Psychological Association in 1972 were experimental psychology and applied psychology.
ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 11
- Some experts have labelled Walter Dill Scott as the “first” industrial psychologist; however, other experts claim that the title belongs to Hugo Munsterberg. Briefly explain why both psychologists could be considered “first” in the field of I/O Psychology.
- Although Army Alpha and Army Beta tests were no longer used after World War I, their use had a marked influence on the field. Briefly explain what these tests were used for and why they had such an impact, even after they were no longer used.
- What was the most important outcome of the Hawthorne studies to the field of I/O Psychology?