Ebersole and Hess Gerontological Nursing 1st Edition Test Bank

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Ebersole and Hess Gerontological Nursing 1st Edition Test Bank

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Ebersole and Hess Gerontological Nursing 1st Edition Test Bank

 

 

 

Touhy: Ebersole and Hess’ Gerontological Nursing & Healthy Aging, 1st Canadian Edition

 

Test Bank

 

Chapter 1: Introduction to Healthy Aging

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. A man is terminally ill with end-stage prostate cancer. What is the best statement about this man’s wellness?
a. Wellness is possible, even if the patient uses medication to assist in management of his medical care.
b. Wellness is unfortunately not a real option for the patient.
c. Wellness is the same thing as faith healing, and if the patient were more receptive, he could be back at work in a few weeks.
d. Nursing interventions can help empower a patient to achieve a higher level of wellness.

 

 

ANS:   D

 

  Feedback
A Incorrect. An individual must work hard to achieve wellness, just as in a job.
B Incorrect. All persons, regardless of age or life–health situation, can be helped to achieve a higher level of wellness.
C Incorrect. Biomedical approaches and other treatments and techniques are used to achieve realistic improvements in wellness.
D Correct. A nurse can foster wellness at all levels of the needs hierarchy.

 

 

DIF:     Application    REF:    5                     OBJ:    2

TOP:   CRNE: CH (Changes in Health)

 

  1. In differentiating between health and wellness in health care, which of the following statements is true?
a. Health is a broad term encompassing attitudes and behaviours.
b. The concept of wellness was rarely or never considered by previous generations.
c. Wellness and self-actualization develop through learning and growth.
d. It is impossible to have wellness when one’s health is compromised.

 

 

ANS:   A

 

  Feedback
A Correct. Holistically, health includes wellness, which involves one’s whole being.
B Incorrect. Throughout history, basic self-care requirements have been recognized.
C Incorrect. As basic needs are met, higher level needs can be satisfied in turn, with ever-deepening richness to life.
D Incorrect. Even with chronic illness, with multiple disabilities, or in dying, movement toward higher wellness is possible.

 

 

DIF:     Comprehension                                  REF:    4–5                  OBJ:    2

TOP:   CRNE: HW (Health & Wellness)

 

  1. Which province or territory is predicted to have the fastest growing older adult population in Canada between the years 2006 and 2031?
a. Ontario
b. British Columbia
c. Yukon
d. Newfoundland

 

 

ANS:   C

 

  Feedback
A Incorrect. As shown in Figure 1-1 in your text, the older adult population of Ontario does not rise as rapidly as the older adult population of Yukon between 2006 and 2031.
B Incorrect. As shown in Figure 1-1 in your text, the older adult population of British Columbia does not rise as rapidly as the older adult population of Yukon between 2006 and 2031.
C Correct. As shown in Figure 1-1 in your text, the older adult population of Yukon rises faster than any of the other provinces and territories between 2006 and 2031.
D Incorrect. As shown in Figure 1-1 in your text, the older adult population of Newfoundland does not rise as rapidly as the older adult population of Yukon between 2006 and 2031.

 

 

DIF:     Knowledge     REF:    3, Fig 1-1        OBJ:    3

TOP:   CRNE: HW (Health & Wellness)

 

  1. Historical influences that have shaped the lives of the majority of the middle-old in Canada today include which of the following?
a. Influenza epidemic of 1918
b. Immigration from Communist Europe
c. Child-rearing during the Depression
d. World War II

 

 

ANS:   D

 

  Feedback
A Incorrect. A person who survived the influenza epidemic would be at least 93 years old in 2011 and therefore be considered old-old, or centenarian.
B Incorrect. Those who are middle-old in 2011 were born between 1920 and 1930, before Communism swept Europe.
C Incorrect. Most of those who are middle-old in 2011 had not reached childbearing age by the end of the Depression.
D Correct. Those who are middle-old in 2011 were in their teens and twenties during the war; in particular, the men were very likely to have fought in it.

 

 

DIF:     Comprehension                                  REF:    2                      OBJ:    3

TOP:   CRNE: HW (Health & Wellness)

 

  1. A nurse prepares for the arrival of older adults evacuated from a forest fire in northern Manitoba to a shelter for short-term care. Which of the following is the priority nursing intervention?
a. Demonstrate that the staff is prepared to meet their needs.
b. Use individual medical records to develop a medication plan.
c. Help older adults to display family photos and memorabilia.
d. Help older adults to teach one another a new skill in the shelter.

 

 

ANS:   B

 

  Feedback
A Incorrect. Providing safety and security from the fire is evident and implied, as the older adults have been evacuated from danger. The priority nursing intervention is caring for any health concerns; e.g., medication or treatments that were left behind.
B Correct. The nurse prepares for short-term care by prioritizing the needs of the older adults, and this intervention helps to maintain the therapeutic plan, thereby addressing the need for physiological integrity. Furthermore, the nurse maintains continuity of care by preparing a medication schedule to prevent missed doses of medication.
C Incorrect. In emergency conditions, the nurse provides basic care relating to safety, security, and physical well-being. Maintaining a sense of belonging is important, but not in emergency conditions.
D Incorrect. A state of emergency is not the time to develop self-esteem because meeting safety, security, and physical needs is more important.

 

 

DIF:     Analysis         REF:    5–6                 OBJ:    2

TOP:   CRNE: HW (Health & Wellness)

 

  1. According to researchers, which characteristic will most centenarians share in the future?
a. Being female
b. Having dementia
c. Being malnourished
d. Being wheelchair-bound

 

 

ANS:   A

 

  Feedback
A Correct. Researchers expect women to comprise the majority of centenarians in the future.
B Incorrect. Gerontologists expect dementia to be common among older adults, but they are not predicting most centenarians will have dementia.
C Incorrect. Malnutrition is common among older adults, but researchers have not predicted that most centenarians will be malnourished.
D Incorrect. Decreased mobility is common among older adults, but researchers have not predicted that most centenarians will be confined to a wheelchair.

 

 

DIF:     Knowledge                 REF:               2          OBJ:               3

TOP:   CRNE: CH (Changes in Health)

 

  1. Which statement describes aging in developing countries?
a. Aged dependence is likely to improve from 1:4 to 1:2.
b. The biggest problem for older adults will be lack of food.
c. Most of the world’s older adults are likely to reside in developing countries.
d. Like fertility, life expectancy is increasing, although at a different rate.

 

 

ANS:   C

 

  Feedback
A Incorrect. Aged dependence is likely to deteriorate from 1:4 to 1:2.
B Incorrect. The biggest problem of the world’s oldest adults is most likely to be lack of regular income.
C Correct. Developing countries contain 64% of the world’s older adults already.
D Incorrect. Life expectancy is increasing, but fertility is decreasing worldwide.

 

 

DIF:     Knowledge                 REF:               4          OBJ:               3

TOP:   CRNE: HW (Health & Wellness)

 

  1. A female older adult tells the nurse that she has experienced increasing fatigue and shortness of breath over the last two days. Which of the following goals is the nurse’s priority?
a. Promote safety to prevent injury.
b. Complete a nutritional assessment.
c. Balance exercise and rest periods.
d. Explore the woman’s complaints.

 

 

ANS:   D

 

  Feedback
A Incorrect. Promoting safety and preventing injury are reasonable goals to include for this older adult, but are not as important as investigating the chief complaint, because breathing and circulation are two of the three most important physical needs.
B Incorrect. Completing the nutritional assessment for this older adult is reasonable because the symptoms can be related to nutritional deficiencies; however, this should be a part of the examination of the chief complaint.
C Incorrect. Balancing rest and exercise is a reasonable approach to a complaint of fatigue and shortness of breath if the older adult is deconditioned; however, the nurse must investigate the chief complaint to determine if deconditioning is a factor.
D Correct. Investigating the complaint is the nurse’s priority because fatigue and shortness of breath can indicate cardiac disease, especially in women. Women with cardiac disease often manifest atypical symptoms, and since it tends to be treated less aggressively in women, the nurse must be careful not to miss indicators of potential cardiac disease. In addition, in investigating the older adult’s chief complaint, the nurse investigates all possible causes.

 

 

DIF:     Analysis         REF:    8                     OBJ:    2

TOP:   CRNE: NCP (Nurse–Client Partnership)

 

  1. The nurse develops a community program to promote exercise for older persons. Which of the following should the nurse include in the exercise program?
a. Reinforce the ease of exercising every day.
b. Use exercise to relax any dietary restrictions.
c. Describe ways to resume exercise after lapses.
d. Teach participants that exercise achieves wellness.

 

 

ANS:   C

 

  Feedback
A Incorrect. The nurse tells the participants that achieving wellness takes work and regular effort. Instead of offering false hope, the nurse shares practical advice about how to incorporate exercise into everyday life.
B Incorrect. The nurse avoids suggesting that older adults can look forward to relaxing dietary or medical restrictions by using a single method because it is unethical to offer false hope, the plan can be ineffective, and the plan can have adverse effects.
C Correct. Because the path to wellness includes progression as well as regression, the nurse shares information to help participants anticipate these events. The nurse encourages participants by telling them to expect periods of regression, that progress made up to that point is not lost, and how to approach resumption in progress toward wellness with exercise.
D Incorrect. The nurse avoids instructing older adults to rely on one method of achieving wellness because wellness is achieved by balancing emotional, spiritual, social, cultural, and physical processes.

 

 

DIF:     Application    REF:    8                     OBJ:    2

TOP:   CRNE: HW (Health & Wellness)

 

  1. Determinants of health are the underlying causes of illness and wellness. Which of the following describes the older adult who is likely to experience the best overall health and well-being?
a. Resides in assisted-living facility, watches television alone, uses herbal remedies, is underweight
b. Resides alone, was moved to a new city recently by the family for their convenience, has osteoarthritis
c. Has prostate cancer with metastasis to the lungs, is receiving radiation therapy, is wealthy, has a large family
d. Uses a wheelchair, has peripheral arterial disease, attends weekly baseball games with three friends

 

 

ANS:   D

 

  Feedback
A Incorrect. This older adult is not thriving in an assisted-living facility, despite having other people in the facility, as evidenced by television viewing habits and weight, both potential indicators of depression. Various aspects of this person’s life are unbalanced, thus inhibiting progress on the path to optimal health and wellness. In addition, the use of herbal remedies can be aggravating or precipitating the problems.
B Incorrect. After a move to a new region, an older adult, especially one who lives alone and is moved to a new area for the family’s convenience, is likely to experience loneliness and isolation until a new social network is established. Thus, although this person has a less-acute health problem, the social isolation is likely to create significant disruption on the path to health and wellness.
C Incorrect. Although this older adult’s financial resources are plentiful, the existence of a large family does not ensure any type of psychosocial support. Most likely, this person faces a grim prognosis because the prostate cancer has crossed the diaphragm, thus reducing the likelihood of a prolonged life.
D Correct. Despite a serious chronic illness and mobility restrictions, this person has a social network and planned activities with friends. Further, this older adult overcomes mobility issues to pursue personal interests; thus, this person is most likely to experience the best health and well-being because of an optimal functional status.

 

 

DIF:     Analysis         REF:    5                     OBJ:    2

TOP:   CRNE: HW (Health & Wellness)

 

  1. Which of the following nursing interventions represent a holistic approach to caring for an older adult?
a. Performs glucose testing during the weekly worship service
b. Wheels ambulatory adults to exercise when running late
c. Assigns female nurses to older female adults who are Muslim
d. Allows older adults in a nursing home to eat meals alone

 

 

ANS:   C

 

  Feedback
A Incorrect. Interrupting an older adult’s worship with glucose testing can be interpreted as a lack of respect for spiritual needs. The nurse can provide for and respect the physical and spiritual aspects of the older adult’s life by testing for glucose before the service begins.
B Incorrect. In transporting the older adults to the exercise program in a wheelchair to save time, the nurse disregards the need for self-esteem and exercise, important aspects of physical well-being. Ambulatory older adults can walk, with assistance if needed, to exercise programs and benefit from the additional activity and independence.
C Correct. The nurse uses a holistic approach to the care of an older female adult who is Muslim because the woman and her family are more likely to be willing participants in a therapeutic regimen that respects a tenet of their culture.
D Incorrect. The nurse can be tempted to allow an older adult to eat meals alone in his or her room if this will motivate the person to eat or if the older adult has dysphagia and is embarrassed. However, while focusing on physical needs, the nurse ignores psychosocial and other aspects of health and well-being.

 

 

DIF:     Comprehension                                  REF:    4–5                  OBJ:    2

TOP:   CRNE: NCP (Nurse–Client Partnership)

 

  1. An older adult male who resides in a nursing home has very high cholesterol levels. Which nursing intervention is most likely to assist this man in achieving his highest level of wellness?
a. Instruct him about increasing dietary fibre.
b. Ask the health care provider for a low-fat diet.
c. Schedule a consultation for him with the dietitian.
d. Review a menu with him to choose suitable foods.

 

 

ANS:   D

 

  Feedback
A Incorrect. Informing the older adult about dietary fibre offers no control to the older adult because he is not part of the decision. Nursing interventions developed with the older adult’s collaboration are most likely to help him achieve health and wellness.
B Incorrect. Collaborating with the health care provider for a low-fat diet is a reasonable approach to help this man with dyslipidemia achieve health and wellness. However, the older adult is more likely to have motivation and enthusiasm for a therapeutic regimen over which he has some control.
C Incorrect. This is a reasonable approach for an older adult with dyslipidemia and is a part of a multifaceted approach to optimizing his health. However, he is more likely to engage in a regimen over which he has input.
D Correct. The nurse collaborates with the older adult to choose suitable foods. This is likely to be an effective nursing intervention to help an older adult with dyslipidemia achieve optimal health and well-being because it gives him some control over the regimen and thus engages him in the process of lowering serum cholesterol.

 

 

DIF:     Analysis         REF:    8                     OBJ:    2

TOP:   CRNE: NCP (Nurse–Client Partnership)

 

  1. An older adult male living in an adult community becomes a widower one month after retirement. Two months later, he has not resumed a weekly outing with his fishing club. Which of the following should the nurse implement?
a. Ask the older adult why he is not fishing.
b. Have club members visit him at home.
c. Meet with him to assess his interests.
d. Enroll him in a weekly card game.

 

 

ANS:   C

 

  Feedback
A Incorrect. The nurse avoids confronting the older adult, even in a gentle manner. “Why” questions can be interpreted as confrontational, and the man may be unable or unwilling to articulate a reason.
B Incorrect. The nurse avoids asking club members to visit him because it removes the older adult from the decision making. Although this effort can be well-meaning, it can be misinterpreted as an invasion of privacy.
C Correct. The nurse meets with the older adult to determine how and when to establish new relationships and social activities in light of his wife’s death. Even though the man engaged in fishing beforehand, the nurse respects the older adult’s wishes and needs as he transitions to a different life.
D Incorrect. The older adult is much more likely to participate in an activity in which he has input. In addition, the nurse’s action can be misinterpreted as disrespectful because an adult has the right to control his own life.

 

 

DIF:     Application    REF:    8                     OBJ:    2

TOP:   CRNE: NCP (Nurse–Client Partnership)

 

  1. The nurse plans activities for female older adults born between 1920 and 1930 who reside in an assisted-living facility. Which is the best intervention for the nurse to implement?
a. Have them bake cookies twice a week.
b. Conduct interviews for specific interests.
c. Arrange dog and cat visits from volunteers.
d. Take them to the library for guest speakers.

 

 

ANS:   B

 

  Feedback
A Incorrect. The nurse incorrectly presumes to know what activities they will enjoy because most of these women are in their 80s, and women born between 1920 and 1930 generally spent their lives as homemakers.
B Correct. The nurse conducts individual interviews with the older adults to determine their interests and avoids generalizing, because as people live longer, they become more and more unique.
C Incorrect. The nurse should avoid arranging group activities until individual interests are determined. In addition, the nurse must assess for allergies and individual fears of animals before exposing an older adult to a pet visit.
D Incorrect. Unless it is done on a voluntary basis, the nurse should avoid arranging visits by guest speakers. In addition, the nurse assesses each older adult before outside visits, to avoid embarrassing events related to incontinence and hearing and vision problems.

 

 

DIF:     Analysis         REF:    8                     OBJ:    2

TOP:   CRNE: NCP (Nurse–Client Partnership)

 

  1. The nurse plans care for an older male adult who lives on Old Age Security pension and a small pension after retirement, and has type 2 diabetes mellitus. Which aspect of this man’s life should the nurse integrate into a positive approach to his health and well-being?
a. He practises effective glucose control.
b. He lives alone in a high-rise apartment.
c. He lacks low-cost, reliable transportation.
d. He attends weekly lunches at his local diner.

 

 

ANS:   A

 

  Feedback
A Correct. Practising effective glucose control demonstrates this man’s resilience and capacity to effectively manage the challenges associated with a chronic illness, and thus is a strength the nurse uses in a positive approach toward his health and well-being.
B Incorrect. Living alone is not ideal for an older adult, especially one with diabetes, because of the potential for loneliness and complications from diabetes such as hypoglycemia. This is a negative aspect of this man’s life and one which has to be resolved for his safety and well-being.
C Incorrect. The nurse cannot include this man’s transportation issues into a positive plan because it is a problem to overcome, not a strength on which to capitalize.
D Incorrect. Going out to lunch is a positive approach to maintaining good mental health, although eating at a local diner may not be the best approach for controlling his diabetes mellitus.

 

 

DIF:     Analysis         REF:    8                     OBJ:    2

TOP:   CRNE: NCP (Nurse–Client Partnership)

 

  1. Mrs. McCloud, 70 years old, lives in Attawapiskat and speaks mostly Cree. She is transferred to a hospital in a larger city in Ontario for hemodialysis. While Mrs. M. is in hospital, what should the nurse take into account when developing nursing interventions based on health promotion?
a. Instruct the older adult to monitor her fluid intake on an hourly basis.
b. Demonstrate, through pictures, how to eat a healthy, well-balanced diet.
c. Ask the older adult about her home and how she accesses health care.
d. Ask the older adult why she did not seek help sooner, to prevent the need for hemodialysis.

 

 

ANS:   C

 

  Feedback
A Incorrect. The nurse avoids instructing older adults to monitor their own health, because patients are more likely to engage if they are asked if they are able or want to do so.
B Incorrect. Even though pictures might be a creative way to engage someone who speaks another language, in isolated communities it is often challenging and expensive to eat a healthy, well-balanced diet.
C Correct. When the nurse asks the older adult about her home, the nurse creates a personal connection with the older adult. Finding out about accessibility to health care is important, because services for older persons are limited in rural and remote regions.
D Incorrect. Asking clients “why” questions can be construed as measuring, evaluating, or confronting, and the older adult may not be able to articulate a reason.

 

 

DIF:     Analysis         REF:    9                     OBJ:    4

TOP:   CRNE: NCP (Nurse–Client Partnership)

 

  1. Mr. Levesque, 65 years old, has been living in homeless shelters for the last three years after having lost his job as a maintenance attendant at a local store. He suffers from alcoholism and appears malnourished upon arrival at the hospital, after falling on the sidewalk and injuring his left shoulder. When implementing a primary health care approach, what is the main principle the nurse should consider with this older adult?
a. Health promotion
b. Accessibility
c. Primary care
d. Public participation

 

 

ANS:   A

 

  Feedback
A Correct. Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over and improve their health. Health promotion addresses the determinants of health. It includes health education, public education, nutrition, sanitation, and prevention and control of diseases.
B Incorrect. Accessibility looks solely at access to health care services and how they can be made more accessible; arriving at hospital indicates that accessibility is not necessarily an issue for Mr. Levesque.
C Incorrect. Primary care is not a principle of primary health care. Primary care is the first contact people have with the health care system. Principles of primary health care include accessibility, public participation, health promotion, appropriate technology, and intersectoral collaboration.
D Incorrect. Public participation implies that older persons are active partners in making decisions about their health care and the health of their communities. It is difficult to determine if this patient is able to make decisions at this time about becoming an active participant in the health needs of the community.

 

 

DIF:     Application    REF:    7                     OBJ:    4

TOP:   CRNE: HW (Health & Wellness)

 

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