America The Essential Learning Edition 1st Edition Test Bank

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America The Essential Learning Edition 1st Edition Test Bank

CHAPTER 01: The Collision of Cultures in the 16th Century

TRUE/FALSE

1. The diversity of native populations in the New World can be illustrated by the more than 300 languages that they spoke.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 9
OBJ: 1. Explain why there were so many diverse human societies in the Americas before Europeans arrived. TOP: Early Cultures in the Americas

2. Early Indian civilizations considered land and people sacred and did not make war or exploit the environment.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 11
OBJ: 1. Explain why there were so many diverse human societies in the Americas before Europeans arrived. TOP: The Mayas, Incas, and Mexica

3. Columbus was looking for a shorter and safer route to India.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 18
OBJ: 2. Summarize the major developments in Europe that enabled the Age of Exploration.
TOP: The Voyages of Columbus

4. The marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella united Spain.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 18
OBJ: 2. Summarize the major developments in Europe that enabled the Age of Exploration.
TOP: The Expansion of Europe

5. The New World was named for the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 20
OBJ: 2. Summarize the major developments in Europe that enabled the Age of Exploration.
TOP: The Voyages of Columbus

6. Martin Luther’s new religion enjoyed a great deal of early popularity in Germany.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 21
OBJ: 2. Summarize the major developments in Europe that enabled the Age of Exploration.
TOP: Religious Conflicts in Europe

7. Before the arrival of the Europeans, the horse was an important part of every New World culture.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 26
OBJ: 4. Assess the impact of the biological exchange between the “Old” and “New” Worlds.
TOP: The Columbian Exchange

8. Smallpox was the deadliest disease the Europeans unleashed among the Indians.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 27
OBJ: 4. Assess the impact of the biological exchange between the “Old” and “New” Worlds.
TOP: Spread of Diseases

9. Spain left little cultural imprint on its former possessions in what is now the United States.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 27
OBJ: 5. Analyze the legacy of the Spanish form of colonization on North American history.
TOP: The Columbian Exchange

10. The Pueblo Revolt of 1598 permanently expelled the Spaniards from New Mexico.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 29
OBJ: 5. Analyze the legacy of the Spanish form of colonization on North American history.
TOP: The Spanish Southwest

11. The presence of horses greatly disrupted the ecology of the Great Plains.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 30
OBJ: 5. Analyze the legacy of the Spanish form of colonization on North American history.
TOP: Horses and the Great Plains

12. The Dutch became Spain’s greatest allies in their fight against the Protestant English.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 32
OBJ: 5. Analyze the legacy of the Spanish form of colonization on North American history.
TOP: French and Dutch Exploration of America

13. The defeat of the Spanish Armada encouraged the English to embark upon New World colonization.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 33
OBJ: 5. Analyze the legacy of the Spanish form of colonization on North American history.
TOP: The Defeat of the Armada

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which statement best describes pre-contact Native Americans living in the Western Hemisphere?
a. All Native peoples were remarkably similar.
b. All Native peoples were hunter-gatherers.
c. Ancient Indians practiced nature-centered religions.
d. Ancient Indians shared dozens of different languages.
e. No Native peoples built towns.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 9
OBJ: 1. Explain why there were so many diverse human societies in the Americas before Europeans arrived. NAT: Events and Processes
TOP: Early Cultures in the Americas MSC: Remembering

2. Native tribes ______________ before Europeans arrived.
a. commonly fought amongst themselves
b. lived peacefully together
c. did not farm
d. were monotheistic
e. were few in number
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 10
OBJ: 1. Explain why there were so many diverse human societies in the Americas before Europeans arrived. NAT: Comparisons and Connections TOP: Indians in 1500
MSC: Remembering

3. The Natives of what is now Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah
a. lived in longhouses.
b. lived in pueblos.
c. lived in massive urban centers.
d. lived in nomadic tribes.
e. were not yet farmers.
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 12
OBJ: 1. Explain why there were so many diverse human societies in the Americas before Europeans arrived. NAT: Historical Period
TOP: Indian Cultures of North America MSC: Remembering

4. In the Pacific Northwest, Indians
a. were dedicated farmers.
b. were very similar to the Mississippian peoples.
c. lived in peace with each other.
d. were divided into chiefs, commoners, and slaves.
e. did not know how to fish.
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 13
OBJ: 1. Explain why there were so many diverse human societies in the Americas before Europeans arrived. NAT: Comparisons and Connections
TOP: Indian Cultures of North America MSC: Understanding

5. Cahokia
a. was a small fishing village of a few hundred people.
b. was a well-developed trade center near present-day St. Louis.
c. was a military stronghold.
d. was destroyed by Europeans.
e. was founded by the Adena-Hopewell culture.
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 15
OBJ: 1. Explain why there were so many diverse human societies in the Americas before Europeans arrived. NAT: Comparisons and Connections
TOP: Indian Cultures of North America MSC: Understanding

6. Which of the following statements describe the Eastern Woodlands people?
a. They often lived along rivers.
b. They included Algonquian speakers.
c. They included Iroquoian speakers.
d. They included Muskogean speakers.
e. All of these.
ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 15
OBJ: 1. Explain why there were so many diverse human societies in the Americas before Europeans arrived. NAT: Comparisons and Connections TOP: Indians in 1500
MSC: Understanding

7. Which of the following forces was the least important in driving European exploration of the Western Hemisphere in the 15th century?
a. More accurate navigation techniques
b. The rise of modern nation-states
c. The decline of feudalism in Europe
d. Chinese conquerors threatening Europe from China
e. The development of more powerful weapons
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 17
OBJ: 2. Summarize the major developments in Europe that enabled the Age of Exploration.
NAT: Events and Processes TOP: The Expansion of Europe
MSC: Evaluating

8. Which of the following was NOT a result of the European revival in trade after the Middle Ages?
a. The push for exploration
b. An increase in commerce
c. An increase in the power of the nobility
d. The formation of nation-states
e. The Protestant Reformation
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 18
OBJ: 2. Summarize the major developments in Europe that enabled the Age of Exploration.
NAT: Historical Interpretations TOP: The Expansion of Europe
MSC: Evaluating

9. Christopher Columbus’s first concern when meeting Native peoples was
a. their spiritual welfare.
b. whether or not they had gold.
c. their scientific knowledge.
d. their style of leadership.
e. their physical safety.
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 18
OBJ: 2. Summarize the major developments in Europe that enabled the Age of Exploration.
NAT: Events and Processes TOP: The Voyages of Columbus
MSC: Applying

10. The dominant religion in Europe in the 15th century was
a. Lutheranism.
b. Methodism.
c. Calvinism.
d. Catholicism.
e. none of these.
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 20
OBJ: 2. Summarize the major developments in Europe that enabled the Age of Exploration.
NAT: Comparisons and Connections TOP: The Protestant Reformation
MSC: Remembering

11. Europeans came to the Americas
a. looking for land to acquire.
b. in search of gold.
c. to expand the influence of their home nations.
d. to spread their religious beliefs.
e. all of these
ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 20
OBJ: 2. Summarize the major developments in Europe that enabled the Age of Exploration.
NAT: Historical Period TOP: The Expansion of Europe
MSC: Analyzing

12. The outbreak of the Protestant Reformation in 1517
a. increased tension between Europe’s nation-states and accelerated the pace of exploration.
b. had no impact on the course of early American history.
c. led to religious unity throughout Europe.
d. spread slowly across Europe.
e. ended Catholicism in Spain.
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 21
OBJ: 2. Summarize the major developments in Europe that enabled the Age of Exploration.
NAT: Events and Processes TOP: The Protestant Reformation
MSC: Evaluating

13. On the eve of first contact between the “Old” and “New” Worlds, the most powerful empire in the world was
a. France.
b. England.
c. Spain.
d. The Netherlands.
e. Portugal.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 22
OBJ: 3. Describe how the Spanish were able to conquer and colonize the Americas.
NAT: Historical Interpretations TOP: The Spanish Empire
MSC: Evaluating

14. _________________ played the most decisive role in helping Europeans gain control of native peoples.
a. Disease
b. Starvation
c. Tribal rivalries
d. Religion
e. Language
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 23
OBJ: 3. Describe how the Spanish were able to conquer and colonize the Americas.
NAT: Historical Period TOP: The Spanish Empire
MSC: Analyzing

15. Why were Hern£n Cort←s’s conquistadors effective in Mexico?
a. Their financial success was tied directly to the natives’ defeat.
b. Cortes made sure that desertion was not an option for his fighters.
c. They had technological advantages such as steel swords.
d. Cortes was a gifted military leader.
e. All of these.
ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 23
OBJ: 3. Describe how the Spanish were able to conquer and colonize the Americas.
NAT: Comparisons and Connections TOP: A Clash of Cultures
MSC: Evaluating

16. Perhaps the greatest cultural advantage enjoyed by the Spanish over the native peoples was
a. bronze weaponry.
b. horses.
c. cannons.
d. cargo ships.
e. better maps.
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 23
OBJ: 3. Describe how the Spanish were able to conquer and colonize the Americas.
NAT: Historical Interpretations TOP: A Clash of Cultures
MSC: Understanding

17. The most devastating European disease that the Aztecs contracted from Cort←s’s men was
a. chicken pox.
b. malaria.
c. smallpox.
d. measles.
e. diphtheria.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 24
OBJ: 3. Describe how the Spanish were able to conquer and colonize the Americas.
NAT: Events and Processes TOP: Spanish Invaders
MSC: Applying

18. The best description of the encomienda is
a. a large farm or ranch used by the Spanish in California.
b. a religious institution for assimilation created by the Catholic Church.
c. a Spanish economic system used to control African slaves.
d. a socioeconomic system that gave control of Indian villages to favored Spanish soldiers.
e. none of these.
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 26
OBJ: 3. Describe how the Spanish were able to conquer and colonize the Americas.
NAT: Comparisons and Connections TOP: Spanish Invaders
MSC: Evaluating

19. The statement that best describes the Columbian Exchange is
a. that Europeans brought new technology and science to native peoples.
b. that native peoples gave new animals and plants to Europeans.
c. that plants and animals were shared between natives and Europeans.
d. that animals, plants, people, and cultures were exchanged between natives and Europeans.
e. that disease was the only thing exchanged.
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 26
OBJ: 4. Assess the impact of the biological exchange between the “Old” and “New” Worlds.
NAT: Events and Processes TOP: The Columbian Exchange
MSC: Evaluating

20. Who were the main participants in the Columbian Exchange?
a. Spanish, English, and Native Americans
b. Native Americans, Spanish, and Africans
c. Europeans, Natives, and Africans
d. English, Africans, and Native Americans
e. None of these
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 26
OBJ: 4. Assess the impact of the biological exchange between the “Old” and “New” Worlds.
NAT: Historical Period TOP: The Columbian Exchange
MSC: Applying

21. Which of the following statements is most accurate?
a. Europeans and Native Americans were less different than their crops were.
b. Europeans and Native Americans had nothing in common.
c. No important crops were transplanted from the Americas to Europe.
d. No significant European animals were adopted by Native Americans.
e. Too many Native American crops were poisonous to Europeans to be helpful.
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 26
OBJ: 4. Assess the impact of the biological exchange between the “Old” and “New” Worlds.
NAT: Comparisons and Connections TOP: The Columbian Exchange
MSC: Evaluating

22. The biological exchange caused
a. Europeans to become more accepting of native religions.
b. Europeans to adopt native medicine.
c. the Spanish to leave the Americas.
d. so many native deaths the Spanish switched to African slaves.
e. all of these.
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 26
OBJ: 3. Describe how the Spanish were able to conquer and colonize the Americas.
NAT: Events and Processes TOP: New Spain | The Columbian Exchange
MSC: Analyzing

23. As a result of the Columbian Exchange,
a. new languages were created.
b. new religious beliefs appeared.
c. people adopted new ways of dressing.
d. people’s taste in food began to change.
e. all of these occurred.
ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 27
OBJ: 4. Assess the impact of the biological exchange between the “Old” and “New” Worlds.
NAT: Comparisons and Connections TOP: The Columbian Exchange
MSC: Analyzing

24. In what crucial way did Europeans benefit from the Columbian Exchange?
a. European food prices rose because of Western imports.
b. There were no longer starving people in Europe because of these new foods.
c. New crops like corn and potatoes helped Europe’s population to grow.
d. Native crops always commanded higher prices than traditional European crops.
e. Europeans now had coffee, rice, and wheat to eat.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 27
OBJ: 4. Assess the impact of the biological exchange between the “Old” and “New” Worlds.
NAT: Comparisons and Connections TOP: The Columbian Exchange
MSC: Evaluating

25. The most devastating aspect of this biological exchange was
a. the transmission of new diseases to Europeans.
b. the transmission of European diseases to Native Americans.
c. the rise in European food prices.
d. the rise in native food prices.
e. none of these.
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 27
OBJ: 4. Assess the impact of the biological exchange between the “Old” and “New” Worlds.
NAT: Historical Period TOP: The Columbian Exchange
MSC: Understanding

26. What was most important crop to spread from the Americas to Europe as a result of Spanish colonization?
a. Wheat
b. Corn
c. Rice
d. Potato
e. Indigo
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 27
OBJ: 4. Assess the impact of the biological exchange between the “Old” and “New” Worlds.
NAT: Historical Interpretations TOP: The Columbian Exchange
MSC: Evaluating

27. In the American Southwest, the Spanish policy was to
a. use missionaries to assimilate the natives.
b. allow the native peoples to keep their land.
c. follow a policy of religious toleration.
d. mine for silver and gold and ignore agriculture.
e. ignore this area entirely.
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 28
OBJ: 5. Analyze the legacy of the Spanish form of colonization on North American history.
NAT: Historical Interpretations TOP: The Spanish Southwest
MSC: Analyzing

28. Which of these statements describes Spanish success in the Americas?
a. It encouraged other European nations, like England, to explore there as well.
b. It was short term.
c. It never extended beyond Mexico.
d. It was limited to gold mining only.
e. None of the above.
ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 30
OBJ: 5. Analyze the legacy of the Spanish form of colonization on North American history.
NAT: Historical Period TOP: Challenges to the Spanish Empire
MSC: Analyzing

29. With the defeat of the Spanish Armada
a. Portugal became the dominant power in the Americas.
b. the native peoples were now independent once more.
c. England could now begin colonizing America.
d. Catholicism ended in the Americas.
e. Europe’s wool market collapsed.
ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 33
OBJ: 5. Analyze the legacy of the Spanish form of colonization on North American history.
NAT: Comparisons and Connections TOP: Defeat of the Armada
MSC: Applying

30. Which statement best describes the consequences of Spanish colonization in the Americas?
a. Overall, Native Americans lives were better because of Spanish colonization.
b. Native Americans were exploited, enslaved, and exterminated by the Spanish.
c. The Spanish aided the natives as often as they could.
d. The natives looked to the Spanish to make their lives better.
e. The Spanish always valued input from the natives.
ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 35
OBJ: 5. Analyze the legacy of the Spanish form of colonization on North American history.
NAT: Events and Processes TOP: A Not So “New” World
MSC: Evaluating

31. Native peoples in the Americas
a. were only exploited by the Spanish colonizers.
b. must be seen as victims of the Spanish.
c. were less affected by new diseases than historians once imagined.
d. were active participants in the creation of a new society.
e. thrived as a result of contact with the Spanish.
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 35
OBJ: 5. Analyze the legacy of the Spanish form of colonization on North American history.
NAT: Change and Continuity TOP: A Not So “New” World
MSC: Applying

32. Spanish colonizers
a. always had enough workers to meet their labor needs.
b. never considered using natives as slaves.
c. believed natives to be their equals.
d. compelled first native peoples, then Africans, to do much of their labor.
e. always compensated native workers fairly.
ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 35
OBJ: 5. Analyze the legacy of the Spanish form of colonization on North American history.
NAT: Historical Period TOP: A Not So “New” World
MSC: Understanding

33. New Spain was
a. never profitable for the Spanish.
b. characterized by racial equality.
c. modeled on already existing English colonies.
d. a Protestant stronghold in the Americas.
e. an economic success for later European settlers.
ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: p. 35
OBJ: 5. Analyze the legacy of the Spanish form of colonization on North American history.
NAT: Historical Period TOP: English Exploration of America
MSC: Applying

ESSAY

1. Describe the development of Spanish rule over its territory in America.

ANS:
Answer will vary.

PTS: 1

2. Explain the origins of the American Indians and compare the general cultures that they developed in South, North, and Central America.

ANS:
Answer will vary.

PTS: 1

3. Discuss the various factors that led to the Age of Exploration that prompted and promoted the exploration and settlement of the New World.

ANS:
Answer will vary.

PTS: 1

4. The title of this chapter is “The Collision of Cultures.” In what ways is this phrase an accurate assessment of the early relationship between the Old World and the New World?

ANS:
Answer will vary.

PTS: 1

5. Discuss the voyages of Columbus. What motivated him, and what did he accomplish on each trip? How did his men treat the natives they encountered?

ANS:
Answer will vary.

PTS: 1

6. Discuss the biological exchange between the Old and New Worlds. Examine how plants, animals, and disease shaped both the Old and New Worlds.

ANS:
Answer will vary.

PTS: 1

7. Describe the various challenges to the Spanish Empire.

ANS:
Answer will vary.

PTS: 1

MATCHING

Match each person with one of these descriptions.
a. Conquered the Incan Empire
b. Sought the fountain of youth in Florida
c. Was stoned to death by his own people
d. Captained the Santa Maria
e. Led the first French effort to colonize the New World
f. Was the Spanish ruler in New Mexico
g. Ordered the beheading of Mary, Queen of Scots
h. Led an army of 800 into Mexico in 1519
i. Was Queen Elizabeth’s greatest foreign rival
1. Ponce de Le￳n

2. Jacques Cartier

3. Christopher Columbus

4. Queen Elizabeth

5. Philip II

6. Cort←s

7. Montezuma

8. Juan de O￱ate

9. Francisco Pizarro

1. ANS: B PTS: 1

2. ANS: E PTS: 1

3. ANS: D PTS: 1

4. ANS: G PTS: 1

5. ANS: I PTS: 1

6. ANS: H PTS: 1

7. ANS: C PTS: 1

8. ANS: F PTS: 1

9. ANS: A PTS: 1

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